Check Your Answers After You Read

Section 29.1

Review Key Concepts

1. The gluten in the flour used develops during the mixing stage. Gluten provides both stretch and flexibility, which gives the cookie its chewy characteristic.

2. Do not remove cookies from baking sheets until they are sfirm enough to handle.

Practice Culinary Academics

3. English Language Arts Display cards should be brief but informative and persuasive. They should describe the cookie in an appealing manner and give information about type and ingredients. For example: "Snickerdoodle: This snickerdoodle is a soft sugar cookie rolled in cinnamon sugar. The distinctive flavor is provided by the balance of cinnamon and cream of tartar, which give the cookie its sweet and savory flavor."

4. Social Studies Students can research a cookie from any part of the world and should find both a country of origin and the story of creation. For example, the fortune cookie, despite its inclusion with Chinese food, seems to have originated in Kyoto, Japan. There are competing origin stories for the first American fortune cookie, and there is also a Chinese folklore legend about the fortune cookie's origin.

5. Mathematics The circumference of a raw cookie is (3.14)(2.5 inches) = 7.85 inches. The circumference of a baked cookie is (3.14)(3 inches) = 9.42 inches. Using these numbers, each cookie's circumference increased by 9.42 − 7.85 = 1.57 inches during baking.

Section 29.2

Review Key Concepts

1. A pound cake contains a pound each of butter, flour, sugar, and eggs. Sponge cakes are airier and lighter because they have air whipped into the eggs. The base of the cake is whole, whipped eggs, rather than fat.

2. The pan should be prepared before the batter is mixed. It should be filled as soon as possible after mixing. Most pans are either buttered or sprayed with oil and dusted with flour. Extra flour should be tapped out. Some baked items can be placed on pans lined with parchment paper.

Practice Culinary Academics

3. English Language Arts Students should research different cake options for those with special diets, such as low-sugar/sugar-free cake, eggless cake, gluten-free cake, vegan cake, or any other special diet. They should present the cake and the recipe. They should give information about the special diet and how the cake fits into the diet while still retaining a pleasant texture and flavor.

4. Science Students should discover that the heat of the oven reacts with each ingredient, causing several reactions. The heat helps the baking powder produce gas bubbles, which make the cake light and fluffy. The heat solidifies the proteins in the egg to make the cake firm. The oil keeps the heat from drying out the cake.

5. Mathematics No. The perimeter of the square cake is 2/3 the perimeter of the original cake. The perimeter of the rectangular cake is (2 × 18 in.) + (2 × 9 in.) = 36 + 18 = 54 in. The perimeter of the square equals 4 × 9 in. = 36 in. 36/54 = 4/6 = 2/3, not ½.

Section 29.3

Review Key Concepts

1. The basic ingredients of pie dough are pastry flour, vegetable shortening, water, and salt.

2. To determine the doneness of a pie, gently shake a custard or soft pie. If no liquid shakes, it is done. Another way to determine the doneness is to stick a knife in the pie's center. If it comes out clean, the pie is done. The best way to judge if a fruit pie is done is to follow the guidelines in the formula. The crust should be golden brown.

Practice Culinary Academics

3. English Language Arts Students should at the very least describe the pie and its ingredients. They might also include more detailed preparation information, and history, as well as any interesting cultural information, or variants.

4. Social Studies There are several sources that reveal historical information about pie, as well as several significant dates that could be added to a time line. For example, in the 14th century, the Duke of Burgundy's chef made a giant pie that contained musicians and a woman who came out during the meal as entertainment.

5. Mathematics Approximately 13.23 inches. Each straight side of the slice is equal to the radius of the circle, or ½ the diameter of 9.5 in. = 4.75 inches. The third, curved, side is equal to 1/8 of the circumference of the circle. The circle's circumference is (3.14)(9.5 inches) = 29.83 inches, and 29.83 ÷ 8 ≈ 3.73 inches. Thus, the perimeter of the slice = 4.75 inches + 4.75 inches + 3.73 inches = 13.23 inches.

Section 29.4

Review Key Concepts

1. A Bavarian cream is made of whipped cream, gelatin, and a flavored custard sauce. The gelatin is softened, dissolved in the custard sauce, and cooled. Then, the whipped cream is folded into the mixture, and the dessert is set in a mold. Chiffons are similar to Bavarians, but use meringue instead of whipped cream. Mousse is made with both meringue and whipped cream.

Practice Culinary Academics

2. Science Students should observe that the gelatin will not set when it is made with the raw pineapple. Pineapple contains the enzyme bromelain, which will digest the proteins in the gelatin, preventing it from setting.

3. English Language Arts A pastry chef specializes in making dessert items. Gourmet restaurants and other upscale foodservice establishments often have a separate pastry kitchen with its own hierarchy, just as in the main kitchen. Pastry chef jobs usually require early morning hours, strict attention to detail, and creativity.

4. Social Studies Answers will vary, but students should discover three desserts that are not baked goods from other countries. For example, in China, they eat ginger milk curd, which is a hot, solidified milk dessert with ginger and sugar. This dessert originated in southern China. It is made by squeezing juice from a piece of ginger and filtering the juice into a bowl. Then, dissolve sugar in milk, heat, stir, and pour the mixture quickly into the bowl of ginger juice. Next, wait for two to three minutes. The milk will then solidify and may then be eaten with a spoon.

5. Mathematics Students should draw and label a pie chart with five sections, one for each flavor of ice cream sold. Mr. Kim sold a total of 180 scoops of ice cream. Chocolate accounted for 90 ÷ 180 × 100% = 50% of the scoops, so the chocolate section of the graph should have an angle of 50% × 360° = 180°. The percentages and degrees for the other sections are vanilla: 25% and 90°; pistachio: 15% and 54°; peach and blackberry: each 5% and 18°.