Check Your Answers After Reading

Section 20.1

Review Key Concepts

1. Items that may be nourishing elements include any one or a combination of the following: fresh bones, meat trimmings, fish trimmings, or vegetables.

2. Fish stock is made by slowly cooking the bones of lean fish or shellfish in the same way as a white stock, but for a shorter length of time. One can sometimes add lemon juice or other acids to liquid and reduce it further to make a fish stock called a fumet.

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3. English Language Arts The stone soup is closest to a vegetable stock. Versions of the fable may differ, but some versions may not contain elements such as a complete mirepoix or a bouquet garni. The stone soup described in the fable may not be as flavorful as a stock prepared as described in the section.

4. Science When stock is started in cold water, the proteins in the ingredients escape as solids and coagulate slowly, and then rise to the top in large clumps. When stock is started in boiling water, protein particles remain separate. Because they are so small, they also remain suspended in the water rather than rise. These particles are then churned with fat droplets by the boiling and form an emulsion, which makes the stock cloudy.

5. Mathematics The pot contained 326.82 cubic inches of fish parts. The volume of the combined water and fish parts equals (3.14) (6 inches)(6 inches)(8 inches) = 904.32 cubic inches. The volume of the fish parts equals the volume of the mixture minus the volume of the water, or 904.32 cubic inches − 577.5 cubic inches = 326.82 cubic inches.

Section 20.2

Review Key Concepts

1. The ingredients that can be used as thickening agents include flour, cornstarch, arrowroot, instant starches, bread crumbs, and vegetable purées.

2. Sauce espagnole is made from thickened brown stock and a tomato product with few added seasonings.

3. When preparing a roux, it is important to always remember not to use aluminum cookware, not to use very high or very low temperatures, and not to overthicken liquids with the roux.

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4. Social Studies Students should choose a country and then describe at least two sauces that are traditional to that country. They should note similarities and differences in liquid ingredients, thickening agents and seasonings and flavorings, and between the international sauces and the mother sauces.

5. Mathematics Each cone can hold about 4 fluid ounces of sauce. Since the cone's diameter is 3 inches, its radius is 1.5 inches, and so the volume of one cone equals (√3)(3.14)(1.5 inches)(1.5 inches)(3 inches) = 7.065 cubic inches, or 7.065 ÷ 1.8 = 3.925 fluid ounces ≈ 4 fluid ounces.

Section 20.3

Review Key Concepts

1. Some examples of specialty soups include bisques, chowders, cold soups, and international soups.

2. A soup garnish should be attractively arranged. Each garnish should be cut to the same size and shape, and the flavor and texture should complement the soup. Cook vegetables and starches separately, and do not overcook them.

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3. English Language Arts Reading an article about a particular soup may give students additional information about that type of soup, and they may also learn new tips or instructions to augment their knowledge of how to prepare the soup.

4. Science The process of puréeing releases the starch and fibers in the vegetables, which thicken the soup. Students should notice and come to understand this process by comparing two soups of the same ingredients and the variance in thickness between the two soups.

5. Mathematics The restaurant will need a minimum of 7 quarts of soup per night. On a typical night, the restaurant serves 20 × 6 fluid ounces = 120 fluid ounces in cup-size portions, and 9 × 11 fluid ounces = 99 fluid ounces in bowl size portions, for a total of 120 + 99 = 219 fluid ounces. There are 32 ounces in one quart, so a minimum of 219 ÷ 32 = 6.84375 ≈ 7 quarts of soup are needed.