Check Your Answers After You Read

Section 16.1

Review Key Concepts

1. Table salt is a fine-grain salt most commonly used in food preparation and to season food at the table. Rock salt is large pieces of salt used as a bed during baking for foods such as clams, oysters, and potatoes. Sea salt has a strong distinctive flavor. Kosher salt is a coarser salt that is free of iodine and preferred by many chefs to season food during preparation.

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2. Science Adding salt to the water does not have a noticeable effect on how fast pasta cooks. Salt is added to the pasta water so that the pasta can absorb the flavor. Pasta cooked with salt will be more flavorful than pasta cooked without it. It does not matter when the salt is added as long as the pasta cooks in it for some period of time.

3. English Language Arts As time goes by and cultures become more integrated, more and more seasonings become commonplace in kitchens. A recipe written 40 or 50 years ago may be improved by spices that were not commonly used in American kitchens then, but are now. Be creative in adding new seasonings and flavorings to old recipes.

4. Social Studies The recipe may contain seasonings or flavorings that are unfamiliar. For example, many Thai recipes contain galangal, which is similar to ginger, but recipes all around the world use salt and different types of pepper. Discuss why some cultures may use seasonings and flavorings that others do not.

5. Mathematics The shaker weighs 80 grams. Half of the salt must equal 152 g − 116 g = 36 g. Since half of the salt plus the shaker equals 116 g, the shaker must equal 116 g − 36 g = 80 g. Algebraically: If x is the weight of the salt, and y is the weight of the shaker, x + y = 152, and (½)x + y = 116. Rewrite to solve for xx = 152 − y and x = 232 − 2y. Thus, 152 − y = 232 − 2y. Rewrite to solve for yy= 232 − 152 = 80.

Section 16.2

Review Key Concepts

1. Fresh herbs should be wrapped loosely and refrigerated. Store at temperatures between 34°F (1°C) and 40°F (4°C). Dried herbs should be kept in opaque, airtight containers. Store dried herbs in a cool, dry place at temperatures between 50°F (10°C) and 70°F (21°C). Do not expose stored herbs to heat, light, or excess moisture.

2. Spices should be stored in airtight containers and kept away from direct sunlight. Light can rob spices of their flavor. Spices are best kept in a cool, dry place at temperatures of 50°F to 70°F (10°C to 21°C). Check spices periodically to ensure that they are still fresh.

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3. Social Studies There are several examples of spice blends that characterize a region. For example, Cajun spices come from the American South, harissa comes from North Africa, curry comes from India, and the five spice powder comes from China. Explain what is in the blend, what it tastes like, and how it is used.

4. English Language Arts Your presentations should include information on the herb that is relevant to the herb's use in cooking. Information should be clearly presented and well organized.

5. Mathematics The plant grew 1 foot and 6 inches. The difference in feet is 4 − 2 = 2. The difference in inches is 1 − 7 = −6. Subtract one from the feet and add 12 to the inches to get 1 foot, 6 inches.

Section 16.3

Review Key Concepts

1. Pickles are made from vegetables that are fermented in brines or vinegars flavored and seasoned with dill, garlic, sugar, peppers, or salt. Cucumbers, tomatoes, and peppers are the most common pickled vegetables.

2. In addition to adding flavor, color, and texture, nuts and seeds are also healthful because they are good sources of B vitamins, vitamin E, protein, and omega-3 fatty acids.

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3. Mathematics Probability: 1 in 6; odds: 5:1. There are 20 + 14 + 8 + 6 = 48 total nuts in the bag; 8 of them Brazil, 40 of them something else. The probability of selecting a Brazil nut is 8/48 = 1/6. The odds of selecting a Brazil nut are 40:8, which simplifies to 5:1.

4. Science The fruit punch will absorb into the pickle, turning it a bright red color. Osmosis happens because substances tend to move through a membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. The brine creates an area of higher concentration outside the pickle, causing the water to flow out. Replacing the brine with fruit punch changes the concentration again, causing the fruit punch to absorb into the pickle.

5. Social Studies Salsas, pickles, mustards, and vinegars are examples of condiments that take different forms in different cultures. Yet, usually, the basic forms remain similar. Note the similarities and differences among condiments in different cultures and discuss possible reasons for these similarities and differences (such as different ingredients being available).

Section 16.4

Review Key Concepts

1. Different types of lighting affect the perception of the food's color. If lighting distorts the perceived color of a food, it may appear less appetizing to a customer.

2. Products that are served warm typically have a stronger flavor and aroma than those that are served chilled.

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3. English Language Arts Your descriptions should provide details about all of the sensory perceptions the you experienced. In describing texture, answer the questions provided by the section.

4. Social Studies Learn about aspects of Japanese food presentation and considerations of food‘s sensory properties in Japanese culture, and then determine how you might be applied to improve your own food preparation skills.

5. Mathematics The radius of the dinner plate is ½ of its 11-inch diameter, or 5.5 inches. The area of the dinner plate is 3.14 × 5.5 in. + 5.5 in. = 94.985 sq. in. The area of the potatoes should be 0.5 × 94.985 = 47.4925 sq. in. Substituting that into the area formula yields 47.4925 = 3.14r2, or r2 = 15.125. Take the square root of both sides to get r ≈ 3.889. The diameter of the potatoes = 2r, or 2 × 3.889 ≈ 7.8 inches.