Check Your Answers After You Read

Section 9.1

Review Key Concepts

1. Range of motion means using the fewest body movements possible while avoiding unnecessary stress or strain. When your equipment, tools, and ingredients are easily accessible, you eliminate unnecessary stops and starts, which saves time. An efficient range of motion also eliminates wasted time and energy.

Practice Culinary Academics

2. Science Observe each movement as well as where each piece of equipment is. Using these observations, come up with ideas for eliminating unnecessary movements or moving equipment so that it takes less time and effort to use it.

3. Social Studies Your biography should be clear, concise, and accurate, and should deepen the class's understanding of how the person's contributions to work flow can improve a business.

4. English Language Arts The report should be written in a professional tone that is appropriate for a business communication. It should clearly delineate between the analysis and the recommendations. Use the information about different cooking line arrangements from the section to evaluate which they think would work best in the foods lab, and explain why.

5. Mathematics Dessert should be served at 7:04 (6:15 + 49). Since it takes 37 (10 + 25 + 2) minutes of total preparation time for the soufflé, preparation should begin at 6:27 (7:04 − 37).

Section 9.2

Review Key Concepts

1. The different types of refrigerators and freezers are a walk-in refrigerator (a refrigerated room); a reach-in refrigerator (one, two- or three-door unit with sliding shelves); a roll-in refrigerator (has a rack of sheet pans that can be rolled up a ramp into the unit); a lowboy refrigerator (a half-size refrigerator); and a freezer (a unit that can store foods for longer periods of time and at lower temperatures than a refrigerator).

Practice Culinary Academics

2. Science The tomatoes cooked in aluminum will have a faded color and a metallic odor. The aluminum pot may become pitted and discolored from the acid in the tomatoes. You may taste a slight metallic taste in the tomato sauce from the aluminum pot.

3. English Language Arts Identify common invoice terms and abbreviations, such as PO number, Qty, and unit price. Use class discussion to ensure everyone understands how to read invoices.

4. Social Studies The term FIFO (first in, first out) was developed in the computer science industry as a way of describing computer processing algorithms. FIFO is also used in accounting as a method of evaluating the inventory of a business. It is also used in the military. Businesses often take aspects of other industries and adopt them when they can see a way that it could be useful in your own businesses.

5. Mathematics Annual depreciation amount: $6,300 ÷ 7 = $900. First-year depreciation: $6,300 − $900 = $5,400. Second-year depreciation: $5,400 − $900 = $4,500.

Section 9.3

Review Key Concepts

1. To clean a mixer or food processor, you must first ensure that the equipment has been turned off and unplugged. Next, remove the attachment and bowl and wash them in hot, soapy water. Then, rinse and sanitize each piece. Finally, dry all of the pieces thoroughly.

2. Radiation transfers energy from the equipment to the food. The waves change to heat when they contact the food. Infrared and microwaves are two types of radiation used to cook food.

3. Commercial sinks are used to manually rinse, wash, and sanitize dishes. Commercial dishwashers automate the process of rinsing, washing, and sanitizing dishes.

Practice Culinary Academics

4. Social Studies You can choose a piece of cooking equipment from any region of the world. Ideas might be tandoor ovens, earth ovens or cooking pits, hibachi grills, hayboxes, samovars, shichirins, or many others. The report should include a description of how the equipment works, how it is used, as well as the typical dishes cooked with this equipment. Connect knowledge about the culture to the equipment to explain how it may have developed as a commonly used piece of cooking equipment.

5. Mathematics The median is 14 minutes, since 14 is the middle number in the list of 7, 14, and 20.

Section 9.4

Review Key Concepts

1. A proofing/holding cabinet keeps sheet pans of food warm by holding them in an enclosed, airtight metal container, controlling temperature and humidity levels. It is generally used for yeast dough products or to keep food at 135ºF (57°C).

2. Scoop the amount of food you want and then use the lever to mechanically release the food. Look at the number on the scoop to determine the appropriate size to use.

Practice Culinary Academics

3. Science You should see a steady decline in temperature as the soup sits. As you write your summary, think about how a proper holding technique is important to keep food at a safe temperature.

4. English Language Arts Describe each piece of holding equipment and its appropriate use. Language should be appropriate for new employees in a foodservice establishment. Use illustrations to help explain your directions.

5. Mathematics The ratios are not equal. For the 4 in.-deep pan, the ratio of capacity to depth is 13/4. For the 6 in.-deep pan, it is 20/6. Cross multiplying yields 13 × 6 = 78, and 20 × 4 = 80. Since the two products are not equal, the ratios are not equal.