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Section 1.1

Review Key Concepts

1. The four types of personal injuries that foodservice workers have a responsibility to help prevent in the kitchen are slips and falls; cuts; burns and scalds; and back injuries and strains.

2. Hold the extinguisher upright and remove the safety pin. Direct the nozzle at the bottom of the fire, and push down the handle. This will release the contents that can extinguish the fire.

3. First-degree burns are the least severe of all burns. The skin becomes red, sensitive, and sometimes swollen. Second-degree burns cause deeper, more painful damage, and blisters form on the skin. Third-degree burns are the most serious type of burn. These burns may be white and soft or black, charred, and leathery. The burned area may have no feeling because of damage to nerves. Third-degree burns must be treated at a hospital.

Practice Culinary Academics

4. English Language Arts You might find accounts of kitchen injuries on the OSHA website (, from news sources, or by speaking to people who have worked in the foodservice industry. Their reports should describe the injury, its cause, and any consequences the employer faced as a result of the injury. Using the information in the section, you should come to a conclusion as to how the injury might have been prevented.

5. Mathematics 150°F = 65.55556°C, which may be rounded up to 66°C. Following the conversion formula, 150 − 32 = 118. Then, 118 × 5 = 590. 590 ÷ 9 = 66°C. As an alternative, you may convert 5⁄9 to a decimal (0.555556) and multiply that decimal by 118 to get the final result.

Section 1.2

Review Key Concepts

1. Biological sources of food contamination include bacteria (tiny-celled microorganisms that can make people ill), viruses (microorganisms that grow in other living cells and cause food-related illness), parasites (larger organisms that live off a host), fungi (parasitic plants that grow in food), mold (a form of fungus that often grows on spoiled food), and yeast (another form of fungus that causes food to spoil).

2. Common cleaning products include detergents, hygiene detergents, degreasers, abrasive cleaners, and acid cleaners.

3. If you suspect the workplace has become infested with pests, you should report the situation to a supervisor so he or she can call a professional exterminator. Follow procedures to make areas less attractive to pests by keeping storage areas clean, sanitary, and dry; disposing of garbage quickly; keeping food stored at least 6 in. (15 cm) off the floor and away from walls; removing items from cardboard boxes before storing; and maintaining appropriate temperatures in storage areas.

Practice Culinary Academics

4. Science Molds grow best in conditions that are moist, dark, and warm. You should conclude that bread is best stored someplace cool, dry, and light. In a professional kitchen, the refrigerator is probably the best place to store bread to avoid mold growth. However, storing bread in a refrigerator can affect the quality of the bread.

5. Mathematics To find the ratio, create a fraction using the bleach as the numerator (√2 oz.) and the water as the denominator (512 oz.). To convert the bleach fraction to a whole number, multiply both the numerator and denominator by 2: √2 × 2 = 1 512 × 2 = 1,024. One oz. of bleach to 1,024 oz. of water is the correct ratio, with the fraction in its lowest terms.